History[ edit ] Antiqua typefaces are those designed between about andspecifically those by Nicolas Jenson and the Aldine roman commissioned by Aldus Manutius and cut by Francesco Griffo. Antiqua letterforms were modelled on a synthesis of Roman inscriptional capitals and Carolingian writing. Florentine writer Petrarch was one of the few medieval authors to have written at any length on the handwriting of his time; in his essay on the subject, La scrittura  he criticized the current scholastic hand, with its laboured strokes artificiosis litterarum tractibus and exuberant luxurians letter-forms amusing the eye from a distance, but fatiguing on closer exposure, as if written for other purpose than to be read.
Historical background[ edit ] A book printed by Kis in Claudiopolis modern name Cluj-Napoca inafter his return to Transylvania. It defends his somewhat contentious choices of editing and orthography in his Hungarian printing.
Kis returned to Transylvania around and may have left matrices the moulds used to cast type in Leipzig on his way home. Morison had discussed what he knew of their history with Updike in their extensive correspondence from the s onwards.
The matrices were formed using punches machined from large working drawings and intermediate copper patterns and used to cast type under the control of a keyboard. Ehrhardt's development took place following a series of breakthroughs in printing technology which had occurred over the last fifty years without breaking from the use of metal type.
Pantograph engraving had allowed punches to be precisely machined from large plan drawings. This gave a cleaner result than historic typefaces whose master punches had been hand-carved out of steel at the exact size of the desired letter.
It also allowed rapid development of a large range of sizes with the same consistent style of letter in all of them, although in fact the design was adjusted to produce a clear image at different sizes, for instance by widening the letters and spacing and increasing the x-height.
Both allowed metal type to be quickly cast under the control of a keyboard, eliminating the need to manually cast metal type and slot it into place into a printing press.
With no need to keep type in stock, just the matrices used as moulds to cast the type, printers could use a wider range of fonts and there was increasing demand for varied typefaces. Artistically, meanwhile, the preference for using mechanical, geometric Didone letterforms introduced in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was being displaced by a revival of interest in "old-style" serif fonts developed before this, a change that has proved to be lasting.
The larger sizes are more condensed than the smaller ones on which Ehrhardt and Janson are based. Italic types from the Ehrhardt specimen Monotype developed a revival of the Ehrhardt typefaces using a rediscovered specimen sheet as a source, while simultaneously also working on Van Dijck, a revival of the work of Christoffel van Dijck d.
The characters were drawn on paper in large plan diagrams by the highly experienced drawing office team, led and trained by Steltzer, who Monotype had recruited from the German printing industry.
The drawing staff who executed the design was disproportionately female and in many cases recruited from the local area and the nearby Reigate art school. A wax-copy was made from these drawing, the wax-copy was used to produce a lead plate with the design.
These plates were then used as a plan for machining metal punches to stamp matrices in the Benton -pantographs. The finished design was first displayed in Monotype's journal, the Monotype Recorder, in with an unsigned blurb in what Carter would later call "the accents of Morison".
In italic the 'J' has a crossbar, the 'w' has sharp reverse curves towards the top and left, and the 'v' has a flourish on the left. In order to allow compact line spacingdescenders were kept reasonably short.
The Janson is more rotund and has greater contrast of thick and thin.
It was created by Monotype's occasional collaborator John Peters, a Cambridge University Press designer who also worked as a private printer. This alphabet system, intended to be used to teach children to read, used alternative characters for different sounds spelled with the same letter, like t's and c's dropped below the baseline of the text.
It is sold in standard and professional releases, some releases including text figures and small caps in the roman style only. Like several other Monotype typefaces digitised in the early period of computerised publishing, it is sold under two releases credited both to Monotype itself and to Adobethe latter only in the standard version without small caps.
Inspired by Ehrhardt, type designer and lawyer Matthew Butterick created a revival called Equity, praising its "satisfying heft and authority". Unlike other digitisations, this has been released in optical sizeswith a separate display-size font intended for headlines.
It is used by the Los Angeles Times but as of has not been released for online sale.Selected essays on the history of letter-forms in manuscript and print Item Preview remove-circle Selected essays on the history of letter-forms in manuscript and print.
by Morison, Stanley, ; McKitterick, Internet Archive Books.
The history of inscriptional lettering is intimately tied to the history of writing, the evolution of letterforms and the craft of the hand.
The widespread use of the computer and various etching and sandblasting techniques today has made the hand carved monument a rarity, and the number of letter-carvers left in the US continues to dwindle.
This compilation is dedicated to the memory of our nameless forebears, who were the inventors of the pens and inks, paper and incunabula, glyphs and alphabets. Learn chapter 5 graphic design history with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of chapter 5 graphic design history flashcards on Quizlet.
pay to write philosophy dissertation methodologyestate agents dissertationessay history in letterforms manuscript print selected. scholarly essays on heart of darkness essay on health care order family and consumer science thesis proposal. Janson is the name given to a set of old-style serif typefaces from the Dutch Baroque period, and modern revivals from the twentieth century.
Janson is a crisp, relatively high-contrast serif Classification: Old-style.